In the 20th century, it was very common for criminals to impersonate another person for self-gain. For example, there have been reports of bank robbers dressed up as bank managers to steal money.
In 1888, a man presented himself as Father McCarthy of Montreal to the chief priest in Washington, D. C. Later that day, McCarthy went to the nearest jewelry shop to look for a present for the Cardinal. He ordered a merchant to deliver a couple of diamonds to the chapel where he was living.
When the merchant had arrived with the merchandise, McCarthy wondered whether he could take the diamonds to some other room to display other priests. Instead, he slipped out of the back entrance, never to be seen again.